How Transboundary Processes Connect Commons in Japan and Thailand: A Relational Analysis of Global Commodity Chains and East Asian Economic Integration
Carl Middleton* and Takeshi Ito†*
- *Center of Excellence on Resource Politics for Social Development, Center for Social Development Studies, Faculty of
Political Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
- Email: email@example.com.
- †Faculty of Liberal Arts and Graduate School of Global Studies, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioicho, Chiyoda, Tokyo, 102-8554,
- Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
In this paper, with a focus on Japan and Thailand, we outline a relational environmental and economic history of East Asian economic integration (EAEI) and its implication for the commons in both places. We
draw attention in particular to global commodity chains as relational processes not only of trade and investment,
but also geopolitics and aid, to argue that these transborder processes have connected together commons in distant localities resulting in their simultaneous enclosure, dispossession and (re-)commoning with implications for
community vulnerabilities in positive and negative ways. To demonstrate this argument we analyse three periods
of EAEI: the late nineteenth century until World War II, when Japan and Thailand both began to modernise and
new trade and geopolitical relations emerged in the context of colonialism; the post-World War II recovery until
the Plaza Accord in 1986, during which time Japan rapidly industrialised, as did Thailand to a lesser extent and
regionalism was largely defined by US hegemony; and the post-Plaza Accord period, when Japan
deindustrialised its labour intensive manufacture and heavy industry and Thailand rapidly industrialised and EAEI
became defined by new and intensified global commodity chains.
Duality of Seasonal Effect and River Bend in Relation to Water Quality in the Chao Phraya River
Guangwei Huang 1,*, Han Xue 1, Huan Liu 1, Chaiwat Ekkawatpanit 2 and Thada Sukhapunnapha 3
- Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554, Japan;
email@example.com (H.X.); firstname.lastname@example.org (H.L.)
- Department of Civil Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi,
Bangkok 10140, Thailand; email@example.com
- Royal Irrigation Department, Bangkok 10300, Thailand; firstname.lastname@example.org
Correspondence: email@example.com; Tel.: +81-3-3238-4667
The present study conducted a field survey of water quality along the Chao Phraya River
during the past three years. The main objective was to better understand the spatial–temporal variations
in water quality in relation to season and channel morphology. It assessed the water quality in terms
of chemical parameters, bacteria, and phytoplankton. The results revealed a duality of seasonal effect
for nutrients. The rainy season degraded the water quality by increasing the nutrient concentration
in the waterway in the beginning, but cleaned it up by dilution in the end. However, this duality did
not apply to Escherichia coli (E. coli), for which the highest level occurred during the second half of the
rainy season and a sag curve variation pattern was displayed along the mainstream. Another duality
found by this study is that there was no statistically significant difference in water quality in terms of
chemical parameters between a river bend and the straight channel shortcutting the bend, but significant
differences in the level of E. coli and the phytoplankton community structure were observed between the
two. Of particular note, the present study revealed a coexistence of a saproxenous species (algae found in
clean water) with a harmful species in the bend river reach.