場所：Online Seminar in Zoom
タイトル：Returns to Grid Electricity on Firewood and Kerosene: Mechanism
要旨：Household dependence on ﬁrewood is ubiquitous in developing countries, undermining the carbon services that forests provide. In addition, kerosene is widely used for lighting that emits black carbon (among others). This study examines the eﬀect of grid electricity on ﬁrewood consumption and kerosene by using an instrumental variable (IV) estimation strategy, and it evaluates the mechanisms underlying the causal eﬀect. I use three waves of large sample household surveys from Bhutan and other administrative data to complement the main results. The results show that grid electricity reduces ﬁrewood consumption by approximately 0.83 – 2.09 cubic meters per month and that electriﬁed households are approximately 61 – 71% less likely to use kerosene as lighting fuel. Households respond to electricity provision by adopting basic electrical appliances and adopting electricity for lighting. Results also suggests that the eﬀect of electricity on ﬁrewood consumption is driven by road accessibility and reduction in ﬁrewood consumption is larger for richer households. However, I do not ﬁnd such evidence for kerosene. Further, one electriﬁed household saves emission of about 5.9 tCO2 of carbon dioxide and 5.2 tCO2e of black carbon annually from displaced ﬁrewood consumption. Similarly kerosene displaced due to electricity is associated with about 2.45 tCO2e black carbon annually.